Every child is different and has born with a unique personality. They all learn and react in a different way whenever a lesson is taught or a skill is taught, every child learns at a different pace. Some children may exceed the expected outcomes while others may need support for obtaining these goals.

Growth and development include not only the physical changes that will occur from infancy to adolescence but also some of the changes in emotions, personality, behaviour, thinking and speech that children develop as they begin to understand and interact with the world around them.

Child development is based on the sequence of physical, language, thought and emotional changes that occur in a child from birth to the beginning of adulthood. Going through this phase, a child progresses, from dependency on their parents or guardians, to become an independent learner. Child development can be influenced by genetic factors (genes passed on from their parents) and events during prenatal life. It is also influenced by environmental facts and the child’s learning capacity.

In case of delay in development, it is quite possible to enhance child development through differentiated intervention and properly planned home-based practice, recommended by Occupational Therapists and Speech Therapists.

It is important to understand your child’s growth and emerging changes and development is an important part of parenting and teaching as well. Being infants and children progress through a series of growth stages, they may encounter physical and emotional changes and challenges, and some relatively common problems during these years.

Areas of Development:

Keeping all this in mind, a balance and harmony have to be kept among all the personality traits of each individual student.  To have sound knowledge, let us explore these six learning areas that provide a foundation for later learning and achievement:

  1. Communication and language development
  2. Literacy development
  3. Personal, social, and emotional development
  4. Mathematics Concepts
  5. Understanding the world
  6. Expressive arts and design


  1. Communication and Language Development:

These outcomes cover different aspects of language development and provide the base for literacy. The child should be helped to understanding in mother-tongue and second language as well. This area focuses on children’s developing competence in talking and listening and in becoming readers and writers.


  1. Literacy Development:

Literacy is the main domain of development which mainly includes the ability to read and write. Each child is grown up and born with the capacity for development in these areas. There are numerous ways that adults can support this skill and can keep up making it better at every stage.

Learning to read is built on a basis of language skills that children start learning at birth a process that is mutually complex and wonderful.


  1. Personal, Social, and Emotional  Development:

These outcomes focus on children learning how to work, play and bond with others in a group or in a family. This area covers personal, social moral and spiritual development fostering values and understanding of self and others too both in physical and emotional ways.

Social skills have much to do with personal interactions, developing and maintaining relationships with family, friends, and teachers; cooperating, and being sensitive while responding to others. If a child is shy for gatherings or does not like to go to parties, or he/she does not enjoy pair work or being around a small group of friends, and navigates and interprets the social world around her, it means the child needs to be taught the social skills which may affect the personal and emotional health and development.


  1. Mathematics Concepts:

These outcomes cover important aspects of mathematical understanding and provide the foundation for numeracy and other mathematical operations. This area highlights developmental skills on mathematical achievement and its application through practical activities and on using and understanding mathematical language.


  1. Understanding the World:

This area of development focuses on children’s knowledge and understanding of their environment, other people and features of nature and the man-made world. It includes the skills and competencies for the world around us for historical, geographical, scientific and technological learning.


  1. Expressive Art:

This area focuses on the child’s imagination and the ability to communicate and o express ideas, feelings, observations and experiences in creative ways. They include encouraging children to think of new and innovative ideas which can be expressed through a variety of media.

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